The commands used by the player to perform ranged attacks are:
- f: After selecting a target, press f again to shoot the next appropriate item.
- Pressing . after selecting a target will fire the missile, stopping at the tile selected.
- Pressing Q will let you swap the item fired.
- F: Like f, but you can also select the item to fire.
- Q: Quiver an action, for use for most other commands.
- Tab: If wielding a launcher, attack the nearest monster with the quivered ammo, moving if necessary.
- Shift-Tab or p: Attack the nearest monster with the quivered ammo, without moving.
The player is not always able to do ranged attacks:
- Felids are unable to use ranged attacks.
- Any transformation that makes you unable to wield weapons: Spider Form, Ice Form, Blade Hands, Dragon Form, Pig Form, Wisp Form, Fungus form, and Bat Form.
- Being entangled by a net or a web.
- Being berserk.
Monsters must have the Weapons armour flag or the Use starting equipment flag in order to use ranged weapons. Monsters are not subject to ammo limitations. Those monsters need to meet the following conditions:
- Not being incapacitated. Some effects that can cause this are paralysis, sleep, confusion, being entangled, and petrification.
- Monsters with the Archer flag are more likely to use ranged attacks.
- They need to be able to see their target.
- Monsters adjacent to their target won't use ranged attacks, except if they have the Archer flag.
- Monster with ranged spells won't use ranged attacks, unless they start with some ranged weapon.
- Fleeing and pacified monsters have lower chances to use ranged attacks.
- Not being inside sanctuary.
- Not being berserk.